The Federal Employees Retirement System, or FERS, became effective January 1, 1987. Almost all new employees hired after December 31, 1983, are automatically covered by FERS. Certain other Federal employees not covered by FERS have the option to transfer into the plan.
FERS is a three-tiered retirement plan including the following components:
- Social Security Benefits
- Basic Benefit Plan
- Thrift Savings Plan
You pay full Social Security taxes and a small contribution to the Basic Benefit Plan. In addition, your agency puts an amount equal to 1% of your basic pay each pay period into your Thrift Savings Plan (TSP) account. You are able to make tax-deferred contributions to the TSP and a portion is matched by the Government.
The term “Social Security” means benefit payments provided to workers and their dependents who qualify as beneficiaries under the Old-Age Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) programs of the Social Security Act. OASDI replaces a portion of earnings lost as a result of retirement, disability, or death. It is designed to provide benefits that replace a greater percentage of earnings for lower-paid workers than for higher-paid workers. This means that Social Security benefits are more important for lower-paid workers than higher-paid workers.
As an employee with FERS coverage, you have Social Security coverage. You also are covered under Social Security’s Medicare Hospital Insurance program. This pays a portion of hospital expenses incurred while you are receiving Social Security disability benefits or retirement benefits at age 65 or older.
Social Security programs provide:
- 1. Monthly benefits if you are retired and have reached at least age 62, and monthly benefits during your retirement for your spouse and dependents if they are eligible;
- 2. Monthly benefits if you become totally disabled for gainful employment and benefits for your spouse and dependents if they are eligible during your disability;
- 3. Monthly benefits for your eligible survivors; and
- 4. A lump sum benefit upon your death.
To become eligible for benefits, you and your family must meet different sets of requirements for each type of benefit. An underlying condition of payment of most benefits is that you have paid Social Security taxes for the required period of time.
The amount of monthly benefits you receive is based on three fundamental factors:
- Average earnings upon which you have paid Social Security taxes, which are adjusted over the years for changes in average earnings of the American work force;
- Family composition (for example, whether you have a spouse or dependent child who may be eligible for benefits); and
- Consumer Price Index (CPI) changes that occur after you become entitled to benefits.
Benefits are subject to individual and family maximums.
Once benefits begin, their continuation may depend upon your meeting a variety of conditions. For example, if you have earnings that exceed specified amounts while you are under age 70; your Social Security benefits will be reduced or stopped. There are special Social Security rules that may affect the benefits of Federal employees, including FERS participants. If you previously had some service that was covered by CSRS (or another similar retirement system for Federal employees); your Social Security benefits may be affected by the Windfall Elimination Provision. If you transferred to FERS and do not complete 5 years of service under FERS, any spousal benefit you are entitled to under Social Security may be reduced because of the Government Pension Offset.
Social Security Taxes
Most of the cost of Social Security is paid for through payroll taxes. Each year you pay a percentage of your salary up to a specified earnings amount called the maximum taxable wage base. The Federal Government, as your employer, pays an equal amount. The percentage you each pay for old age, survivor, and disability insurance coverage is 6.20% of your earnings up to the maximum taxable wage base. The maximum taxable wage base increases automatically each year based on the yearly rise in average earnings of the American work force.
The Social Security tax covers both the Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) and Medicare Hospital Insurance programs. The Medicare portion you and your agency each pay is 1.45% of your total pay. All wages are subject to the deduction for Medicare.